Fixing Bash on Windows Error: 0x80070002

I've been testing the limits of the new Ubuntu/Bash shell on Windows and after restarting my computer it mysteriously refused to launch. Running bash from the command line yielded the following message:

Error: 0x80070002

After a few attempts at repair I resorted to re-installing by issuing the following commands from the command line:

lxrun /uninstall /full
lxrun /install

This reset the environment and deleted everything I'd done, but seemed to be the only option.

Back to square one.